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Artificial Food Coloring
Author Index
  1. Abdel 1997
  2. Aboel-Zahab 1997
  3. Alsolaiman 2003
  4. Alvarez Cuesta 1981
  5. Amin 2010
  6. Ashida 2000
  7. Augustine 1980
  8. Bamforth 1993
  9. Bhatia 1996
  10. Boutillier 2000
  11. Ceserani 1978
  12. Chung 1978
  13. Chung 1981
  14. Chung 1983
  15. Chung 1992
  16. Corder 1995
  17. Dalal 2009
  18. Dees 1997
  19. Dipalma 1990
  20. D’Souza 1987
  21. EFSA 2009
  22. Elhkim 2007
  23. el-Saadany 1991
  24. Ershoff 1977
  25. FDA 2003
  26. Federal Register 2003
  27. Gallagher 1980
  28. Gao 2011
  29. Granville 2001
  30. Hashem 2010
  31. Hedman 1981
  32. Huang 1998
  33. Ishihara 1979
  34. Jabeen 2013
  35. Jones 1964
  36. Kamel 2011
  37. Koutsogeorgopoulou 1998
  38. Kumar 1991
  39. Kumar 1993
  40. Kumar 1996
  41. Lafferman 1979
  42. Lancaster 1999
  43. Lau 2006
  44. Lechner 2010
  45. Leo 2018
  46. Lethco 1966
  47. Levitan 1977
  48. Levitan 1984
  49. Logan 1979
  50. Lowry 1994
  51. Lucarelli 2004
  52. Maloney 2000
  53. Mehedi 2009
  54. Mizutani 2009
  55. MMWR 1998
  56. Moutinho 2007
  57. Mpountoukas 2010
  58. Pediatrics 1997
  59. Peng 2009
  60. Piruzian 2001
  61. Poul 2009
  62. Prival 1993
  63. Rao 1996
  64. Reyes 1996
  65. Rosenkranz 1990
  66. Sasaki 2002
  67. Shimada 2010
  68. Smith 1984
  69. Sobotka 1977
  70. Sweeney 1994
  71. Tanaka 1992
  72. Tanaka 1993
  73. Tanaka 1996
  74. Tanaka 2001
  75. Tanaka 2005
  76. Taylor 1998
  77. Tsuda 2001
  78. Vorhees 1983
  79. Wuthrich 1993
  80. Zillich 2000
Leo 2018: Occurrence of azo food dyes and their effects on cellular inflammatory responses

Occurrence of azo food dyes and their effects on cellular inflammatory responses.

1   Centre for Functional Food and Human Nutrition, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore; Food Science and Nutrition Group, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore.
2   Food Science and Nutrition Group, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore.
3   Centre for Functional Food and Human Nutrition, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore; Food Science and Nutrition Group, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore. Electronic address:



The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of five azo food dyes-tartrazine, sunset yellow, carmoisine, allura red, and ponceau 4 R-in the food supply chain of Singapore and their effects on the in vitro synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and F2-isoprostanes.


Trained personnel recorded the names of foods and beverages sold in a local supermarket that contained at least one of the five azo dyes. The occurrence of the azo dyes in the local food supply was computed. The synthesis of LTB4 and F2-isoprostanes from freshly isolated blood neutrophils were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.


Of the 1681 processed food items, 194 (11.54%) contained at least one of the five azo dyes. Tartrazine was most prevalent in food and beverage products sold in Singapore, followed by allura red, sunset yellow, ponceau 4 R, and carmoisine. The five azo dyes augmented the in vitro synthesis of LTB4 and F2-isoprostanes from blood neutrophils. Tartrazine was significantly more potent in increasing LTB4synthesis than the other dyes, which exhibited similar potencies. The five food dyes increased the formation of F2-isoprostanes from blood neutrophils at all tested concentrations.


The high prevalence of azo dyes in the food supply of Singapore and their ability to elicit proinflammatory responses in vitro suggest a potential health risk to the local population.  Abstract

Jabeen 2013: Food dyes hurt yeast at body temperature

Genotoxicity assessment of amaranth and allura red using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jabeen HS,  Rahman S, Mahmood S, Anwer S., Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2013 Jan;90(1):22-6

Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129) … were assessed for their genotoxic potential through comet assay in yeast cells. … No significant genotoxic activity was observed for Amaranth and Allura red at 28°C but at 37°C direct relation of Amaranth concentration with comet tail was significant and no positive relation was seen with time exposure factor. … The results indicated that food colors should be carefully used in baking products as heavy concentration of food colors could affect the fermentation process of baking.Note: Yes, indeed, one must protect the yeast. How about protecting the people who are going to EAT the items containing these food dyes? Our body temperature is also 37°C … doesn’t that count?


Kamel 2011: Yellow 5 makes rats depressed, anxious, hyper & anti-social

The Potential Health Hazard of Tartrazine and Levels of Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Like Symptoms, Depression and Anti-social behaviour in Rats, Kamel MM, El-lethey HS,  Scroll down to #183Journal of American Science, 2011;7(6)

. . . Tartrazine-treated rats showed hyperactivity in open field test presented by increased horizontal locomotion. Anxiogenic effect of tartrazine was evidently observed during open field, elevated plus-maze and dark-light transition tests. Furthermore, tartrazine intake significantly promoted depression as expressed by prolonged immobilization during forced swim test. Impairment in social interaction test was also detected signifying the relevance of administered dose especially on numbers of bouts of social contacts. This study provides sufficient scientific evidence that a causal link truly exists between tartrazine and inflection of hyperactivity, anxiety and depression-like behaviours in rats and points to the hazardous impact of tartrazine on public health.Abstract ||

Gao 2011: Yellow 5 hurts learning and memory in mice & rats

Effect of Food Azo Dye Tartrazine on Learning and Memory Functions in Mice and Rats, and the Possible Mechanisms Involved, Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H, Journal of Food Science, 2011,  76(6), T125–T129

. . . The results indicated that tartrazine extract significantly enhanced active behavioral response to the open field, increased the escape latency in Morris water maze test, and decreased the retention latency in step-through tests. The decline in the activities of catalase glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as a rise in the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) were observed in the brain of tartrazine-treated rats . . .Abstract || Full text || Get password

Shimade 2010: Some dyes damage DNA in mice, not rats

Differential colon DNA damage induced by azo food additives between rats and mice,  Shimada C, Kano K, Sasaki YF, Sato I, Tsudua S,  Journal of Toxicological Sciences 2010;35(4):547-54.

Azo dyes, amaranth, allura red and new coccine, which are currently used as food color additives in Japan, have been reported to cause colon specific DNA damage in mice. To examine species difference in the DNA damage between rats and mice, each of dyes was administered to male mice (1 and 10 mg/kg) and male rats (10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg) by gavage (feeding by mouth). … The alkaline comet assay showed DNA damage in the mouse colon 3 hr after the administration of all of the dyes at 10 mg/kg. In rats, however, none of the dyes damaged DNA. …MedLine

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