Some studies on fluoride
and its connection to health & behavior
Dental fluorosis is characterized by skeletal changes and by mottled enamel of the teeth when exposure to fluoride occurs during enamel formation. [Dorland’s Medical Dictionary]
We are commonly told that adding fluoride to water or giving fluoride supplements or treatments directly to teeth prevents cavities. Theoretically, discoloration of the teeth from an excess of such treatment is “just cosmetic,” an attitude that ignores the emotional pain suffered by young (and old) people with ugly marks on their teeth, not to mention the efforts (and money) they may spend on trying to whiten them. Evidence has long been mounting that fluoride, whether at excessive or recommended levels, can also affect the brain and the joints, increasing the likelihood of broken hips in the elderly.
- Arlappa 2013
- Bardsen 1998
- Bardsen 1999
- Bataineh 2006
- Borke 1999
- Brothwell 1999
- Choi 2012
- Choi 2015
- Disanayake 1995
- Ellwood 1998
- Grandjean 2014
- Haimanot 1990
- Heller 1997
- Hu 1988
- Ismail 1999
- Kavanagh 1998
- Kumar 1989
- Kumar 1998
- Kumar 1999
- Kurttio 1999
- Malin 2015
- Mascarenhas 1998
- McGill 1995
- Morgan 1998
- Mullenix 1995
- Noh 2015
- Pearce 1999
- Riordan 1993
- Warren 1999
- Warren 1999
Noh 2015: Estimating fluoride in baby food in Korea
Estimation of fluoride intake from milk-based infant formulas and baby foods. Noh HJ, Sohn W, Kim BI, Kwon HK, Choi CH, Kim HY. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1300-9
The fluoride content of 20 commercially available formulas and 8 baby food samples from 4 different brands was measured using a modified microdiffusion method and fluoride ion selective electrode.
The findings of our study suggest that the amount of fluoride ingested from baby foods could be substantial enough to cause dental fluorosis … Therefore, it is necessary to recommend that manufacturers monitor and reduce the fluoride contents of baby food, similar to what they do for infant formula, because caregivers usually follow the product directions when reconstituting the formula and baby food.
Malin 2015: Water fluoridation rate related to ADHD rate
Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association., Malin AJ, Till C, Environmental Health, 2015 Feb 27;14(1):17
Epidemiological and animal-based studies have suggested that prenatal and postnatal fluoride exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to fluoridated water and Attention–Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States. . . Parents reported higher rates of medically-diagnosed ADHD in their children in states in which a greater proportion of people receive fluoridated water from public water supplies.
Grandjean 2014: Industrial chemicals rob children of IQ points
Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity, Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ., The Lancet: Neurology, 2014 Mar;13(3):330-8
Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. … To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse.
(In Table 2, fluoride is listed as a chemical newly identified as causing developmental neurotoxicity in human beings)
Arlappa 2013: Fluorosis in India
Fluorosis in India: an overview, Arlappa N, Aatif Qureshi I, Srinivas R. 2013. Review article , International Journal of Research & Development of Health, Vol. 1(2), 97-102.
… Fluorosis is an important public health problem in 24 countries, including India, which lies in the geographical fluoride belt that extends from Turkey to China and Japan through Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan. Of the 85 million tons of fluoride deposits on the earth’s crust, 12 million are found in India. Hence it is natural that fluoride contamination is widespread, intensive and alarming in India
Choi 2012: Review of fluoride neurotoxicity
Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Choi AL, Sun G, Zhang Y, Grandjean P. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012 Oct;120(10):1362-8
Although fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in animal models and acute fluoride poisoning causes neurotoxicity in adults, very little is known of its effects on children’s neurodevelopment. . . children in high-fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-fluoride areas. . . The results support the possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children’s neurodevelopment.
Bataineh 2006: Rat study on fluoride and sex
Impact of 12-week ingestion of sodium fluoride on aggression, sexual behavior, and fertility in adult male rats, Bataineh HN, Nusier MK. (2006). Research report Fluoride, 39(4), 293-301.
12 weeks of fluoride ingestion decreased aggression in the male rats, but also decreased sperm production, sperm motility, and fertility.