Preservatives

PRESERVATIVESThese three are some of the most commonly used preservatives in the United States.  They are petrochemicals (made from petroleum).  They are not allowed in some countries.

Author Index
  1. Bauer 2006
  2. Chung 1999
  3. Dwyer-Nield 2010
  4. Gultekin 2012
  5. Klein 2003
  6. LeClercq 2000
  7. Malkinson 1999
  8. Meier 2007
  9. Meyer 2006
  10. Naveena 2008
  11. Patrick 1999
  12. Safer 1999
  13. Sarafian 2002
  14. Soubra 2006
  15. Stokes 1974
  16. Stolze 1999
  17. Takami 1999
  18. Tryphonas 1999
  19. Umemura 2002
  20. Yu 2000
Gultekin 2012: Allergic & immunologic reactions

Allergic and Immunologic Reactions to Food Additives. Gultekin F, Doguc DK. CClinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology. 2012 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

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Dwyer-Nield 2010: BHT and lung cancer in mice

Epistatic interactions govern chemically-induced lung tumor susceptibility and Kras mutation site in murine C57BL/6J-ChrA/J chromosome substitution strains. Dwyer-Nield LD, McQuillan J, Hill-Baskin A, Radcliffe RA, You M, Nadeau JH, Malkinson AM. International Journal of Cancer 2010 Jan 1;126(1):125-32.

Cancer susceptibility results from interactions between sensitivity and resistance alleles. We employed murine chromosome substitution strains to study how resistance alleles affected sensitive alleles during chemically-induced lung carcinogenesis. … CSS6 mice were resistant to lung carcinogenesis induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Tumor multiplicity increased if BHT administration followed urethane exposure, showing that a Chr 6 gene(s) regulates sensitivity to chemically-induced tumor promotion. …

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Naveena 2008: Pomegranate juice is a better preservative than BHT

Comparative efficacy of pomegranate juice, pomegranate rind powder extract and BHT as antioxidants in cooked chicken patties. Naveena BM, Sen AR, Vaithiyanathan S, Babji Y, Kondaiah N. Meat Science 2008 Dec;80(4):1304-8.

A study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice (PJ), rind powder extract (RP) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) in cooked chicken patties during refrigerated storage. … The PJ or RP at a level of 10mg equivalent phenolics/100g meat would be sufficient to protect chicken patties against oxidative rancidity for periods longer than the most commonly used synthetic antioxidant like BHT.

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Meier 2007: BHT causes inflammation & lung tumors

Mechanistic basis for inflammation and tumor promotion in lungs of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol-treated mice: electrophilic metabolites alkylate and inactivate antioxidant enzymes. Meier BW, Gomez JD, Kirichenko OV, Thompson JA. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2007 Feb;20(2):199-207.

Several antioxidant enzymes in mouse lung are inhibited by BHT metabolites (breakdown products) leading to enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation and providing a mechanistic basis for the effects of BHT on lung tumorigenesis.MedLine || Full Text || Get Password

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BHA, BHT, & TBHQ

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BHA

According to the National Toxicology Program’s Twelfth Annual Report on Carcinogens (2011) BHA   “is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen…”

BHT

According to the Toxicology Data Network, BHT is absorbed and stored in fat tissue. In animal studies, its suitability for use as a food additive is questioned because of “increased liver weights & abnormal cellular behavior.”

BHT by any other name .... list of 151 synonyms

EnvironmentalChemistry.com lists all the names of various chemicals.

2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol

Identifications

  • Formula: C15H24O
  • Formula: [C(CH3)3]2CH3C6H2OH
    Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
  • CAS Number: 128-37-0
  • CAS Number: 58500-82-6
  • Caswell Number: 291A
  • CCOHS Record Number: 246
  • FEMA Number: 2184
  • RTECS Number: GO7875000
  • Synonyms/Related:
    • 1-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylbenzene
    • 2, 6-Di-terc.butyl-p-kresol
    • 2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-cresol
    • 2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, food grade
    • 2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
    • 2, 6-Di-tert-butylcresol
    • 2,6,-Bis (1,1-Dimethylethyl) -4-Methyl-
    • 2,6-Bis(1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
    • 2,6-bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
    • 2,6-bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol [QR]
    • 2,6-Di-(tert-butyl)-4-methylphenol
    • 2,6-Di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol
    • 2,6-di-t-Butyl-p-cresol
    • 2,6-di-terc.Butyl-p-kresol
    • 2,6-di-terc.Butyl-p-kresol (CZECH)
    • 2,6-Di-terc.butyl-p-kresol [Czech]
    • 2,6-di-tert-Butyl-1-hydroxy-4-methylbenzene
    • 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-cresol
    • 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene
    • 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylhydroxybenzene
    • 2,6-di-tert-Butyl-4-methylphenol
    • 2,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-P-Cresol
    • 2,6-di-tert-Butyl-p-methylphenol
    • 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-para-cresol, food grade
    • 2,6-di-tert-Butylcresol
    • 2,6-Ditertbutyl-4-methyl phenol
    • 2,6-tert-Butyl-4-methylphenol [QR]
    • 3,5-di-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxytoluene
    • 4-Hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butyltoluene
    • 4-Methyl-2, 6-tert-butylphenol
    • 4-Methyl-2,6-di-terc. butylfenol
    • 4-Methyl-2,6-di-terc. butylfenol (CZECH)
    • 4-Methyl-2,6-di-terc. butylfenol [Czech]
    • 4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol
    • 4-Methyl-2,6-tert butylphenol
    • 4-Methyl-2,6-tert-butylphenol
    • 4-Methyl-26-di-tert-butyl Phenol
    • Advastab 401
    • Agidol
    • Agidol 1
    • Alkofen BP
    • Antioxidant 264
    • Antioxidant 29
    • Antioxidant 30
    • Antioxidant 4
    • Antioxidant 4K
    • Antioxidant DBPC
    • Antioxidant KB
    • Antioxidant MPJ
    • Antioxidant T 501
    • Antox QT
    • Antrancine 8
    • Antrancine 8 [QR]
    • AO 29
    • AO 4K
    • AOX 4
    • AOX 4K
    • BAT
    • Bbutylated hydroxytoluene
    • BENZENE,1,3-DITERT.BUTYL,2-HYDROXY,5-METHYL
    • BHT
    • BHT (food grade)
    • BHT 264
    • BHT, food grade
    • BUKS
    • Butyl hydroxy toluene
    • Butylated hydroxytoluene
    • Butylated hydroxytoluene (NF)
    • Butylated hydroxytoluene [QR]
    • Butylated hydroxytoluene [USAN:BAN]
    • Butylated hydroxytoluol
    • Butylhydroxytoluene
    • Butylohydroksytoluenu
    • Butylohydroksytoluenu [Polish]
    • CAO 1
    • CAO 3
    • Catalin antioxydant 1
    • Catalin cao-3
    • Chemanox 11
    • D02413
    • DALPAC
    • DBMP
    • DBPC
    • DBPC (technical grade)
    • Deenax
    • Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
    • Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (VAN)
    • di-tert-Butyl-p-cresol [QR]
    • Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
    • di-tert-Butylcresol
    • Dibunol
    • Dibutyl-p-cresol
    • Dibutyl-para-cresol
    • Dibutylated Hydroxytoluene
    • Impruval
    • Impruvol
    • Impruvol [QR]
    • Ional
    • Ionol
    • Ionol (antioxidant)
    • Ionol 1
    • Ionol CP
    • Ionol CP [QR]
    • Ionol CP-antioxidant [QR]
    • Ionol” CP-antioxidant
    • Ionole
    • Kerabit
    • LS-716
    • Methyldi-tert-butylphenol
    • MLS000069425
    • Nocrac 200
    • Nonox TBC
    • O,O’-di-tert-Butyl-p-cresol
    • o-Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
    • P 21
    • p-Cresol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-
    • p-Cresol, di-tert-butyl- (8CI)
    • P21
    • Parabar 441
    • Paranox 441
    • Phenol, 2,6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
    • Phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
    • Phenol, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
    • Phenol, bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
    • SMR000059076
    • Stavox
    • Sumilizer BHT
    • Sustane
    • SUSTANE BHT
    • Sustane [QR]
    • Swanox BHT
    • Tenamen 3
    • Tenamene 3
    • Tenox BHT
    • Tonarol
    • Topanol
    • Topanol O
    • Topanol OC
    • Toxolan P
    • Vanlube PC
    • Vanlube PCX
    • Vianol
    • Vulkanox KB

 

 

BHT report on safety in cosmetics (2002)

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of BHT
International Journal of Toxicology, 2002

  • In addition to liver and kidney effects, BHT applied to the skin was associated with toxic effects in lung tissue.
  • BHT itself was not generally considered genotoxic, although it did modify the genotoxicity of other agents.
TBHQ

According to the Toxicology Data Network, TBHQ human health effects include chronic neurotoxic effects and vision disturbances, as well as proliferation of certain lymphocytes. In animal studies, TBHQ induced convulsions, liver enlargement, and increase in cytochrome P450.